How did the industrial revolution, the enlightenment and imperialism cause negative changes that led to how our world is like today?
This a pretty loaded question so forgive me if I add too much detail.
The Industrial Revolution had generally positive effects on life, such as more efficient water lines, access to steam power, and the use of more complex machinery. However, such changes did allow for the people at the bottom of the economic pyramid to experience decreased standards of living according to the current academic consensus.
The enlightenment is a tough one, simply because you’re asking for the negative effects of it. I honestly can’t think of anything worth noting that had negative effects on the world that came out of the enlightenment. The enlightenment encouraged the use of human intellect, reason, the scientific method, and general skepticism. I suppose the only negative effects of such things are the violent reactions from those who choose to engage in superstition rather than science. For instance, the destruction of Joseph Priestly’s laboratory by a violent crowd.
Imperialism is the easiest of the three. First off, imperialism refers to the domination of land and cultures through use of force and subordination. An example of a once-imperialist nation was Great Britain in the 18th century. Britain expanded its reach incredibly far. It had an essentially free society but its military ruthlessly slaughtered innocent people in India. A more modern example of an imperialist nation is America. America since the end of the second world war had been extremely dictatorial to other nations and imperialistic in its actions. So for instance we can look at U.S. war crimes in Nicaragua, Guatemala, Vietnam, Iraq, Afghanistan, many African countries, and also at the power and influence we have over sovereign nations such as Britain, France, Canada, Israel, South Korea, etc. The U.S., under the guise of ‘spreading democracy’, intervenes in developing third world countries and makes sure that democracy is not implemented at all costs. We remove the current regime and make sure that a new, but just as brutal, regime is installed. We also have killed thousands of innocent men, women, and children through the use of drone strikes. All of this causes mass poverty, tyranny, death, destruction, and the stagnation of human progress around the world.